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AHS Subject Guides: Research Skills: Citing Sources and Creating a "Works Cited" Page

This guide provides links to resources, and some instructional material to help you in the research and writing process.

Citing Sources and Creating a "Works Cited" Page

How should I organize information? Citations and References

Citations are bits of information in a document that "cite", or refer to, the original source where the facts or ideas mentioned originally came from. References are lists of those sources, with more complete information about them.

Different academic disciplines use different ways of presenting and formatting citations and references, and in high school and college, students will need to use several of these citation "styles", depending on whether they are writing for science, humanities, or history.

There are many good online and print resources to help you learn to use the different citation styles. There are also a number of free and paid digital tools to help you find, format, organize and store your sources, as well as take notes, and actually format your paper.

At Amity we now recommend the use of our subscription online tool for citation creation called NoodleTools, and have created instructions for using it.

Citation Styles

Citation Styles: Links to Individual Style Guides

For an overview of the different styles--MLA, Chicago, and APA--and how they are used, look at the citation library guide from the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Library at Los Angeles City College.

Citation Comparison Chart: This chart from the OWL at Purdue compares the basics of the three citation styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago (updated July 2018).

 

Citation Styles: APA

APA

Citing APA Style - Purdue OWL

The American Psychological Association (APA) has developed a style most often used for psychology and certain other scientific fields.  

This practical and reliable guide is published by renowned Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL).

 

Citation Styles: MLA

MLA

The Modern Language Association (MLA) has developed this guide, most often used for the liberal arts and Humanities.  

 

Citing MLA Style: Amity Librarians' Quick Guide

Resource developed by Amity librarians with the mostly commonly used sources and how to accurately cite them.  

Citing MLA Style - Purdue OWL

This practical and reliable guide is published by renowned Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL).

 

Look at the MLA Sample Paper.

 

Citation Styles: Chicago

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ChicagoStyle (updated 10-2018)

As of the 2016-17 Amity's History Department has decided to use Chicago Notes and Bibliography Style (footnotes) as its citation style.

Citing Chicago Style - Amity Librarians’ Quick Guide

Resource developed by Amity librarians with the most commonly used sources and how to accurately cite them.  Includes bibliography format as well as how to cite in footnotes.

 

Citing Chicago Style - Purdue OWL

Very practical and reliable guide published by renowned Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL). Chicago includes two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and author-date style (sometimes called reference list style). Here are the basic differences:

 

-Notes-bibliography style (required style for History at Amity):

The basics of the note-bibliography style are as follows: Whenever you need to cite a source, a superscript number is placed in the text at the end of the sentence or part of the sentence that contains the paraphrase or quote taken from your source.

The same number corresponding to that reference is placed, normal-sized, in the footnote area at the bottom of the page or the end of the section (your teacher’s choice).

 

The first time a source is used in a document the entire bibliography form is used in the footnote, but the footnote format is slightly different.  The second time the citation is used in the footnote it is shortened even more (see rules). When the same source is used twice or more in a row, you write “ibid” (which means “the same”), and change page number if needed.

 

A full bibliography at the end of the paper includes all complete source citations sources with their complete citation forms, in alphabetic order.

 

-Author-date style: In the body of the text, author names, dates, and sometimes page numbers in parentheses indicate cited sources, which are then listed by their entire source citation. A full bibliography at the end of the paper includes full source citations.

 

Citing Chicago Style - University of Chicago Press Quick Guide

Excellent set of examples published online by the University of Chicago Press.

Sample Chicago-style papers:

Footnotes and bibliography style paper (from OWL)

End-notes and bibliography style paper

 

Chicago-Style Guide Poster (from OWL)

 

Use your NoodleTools account for easy citing!

Amity High School, Amity Region 5 School District, Woodbridge, CT 06525, 203-397-4844 Librarians: Robert F. Musco and Victoria Hulse Copyright 2017