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AHS Subject Guides: Science: Science Research, Year 1

This guide includes print and online resources for Science: Courses include: Biology, Earth Science, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics, Forensics, Human Anatomy, etc.

Science Research I -- Introduction to Online Sources

Science Research Year 1

Introduction to Online Sources for Science Periodicals

Information literacy topics:

-Determining best sources

-Searching strategies for information

-Evaluating sources

-Using technology tools

1. Objective: To distinguish between different types of databases and periodicals available online for science research, to judge the reliability of online sources, and to develop and practice searching strategies, such as the use of limiters, for relevant information.

 

2. Presentation/Discussion: What is a periodical? What are the different types?

Types of periodicals: Look at the Lesson Plan to review the details of what we discussed, and  Learn about the criteria that defines each type.

-Scholarly and Research Journals (Peer-reviewed, written by recognized, credentialed experts, meant to report original research and further knowledge in the field among experts)

-Professional, Trade and Industry (for insiders, not exactly “peer-reviewed”, writers may be industry experts, may be accomplished journalists who are not experts, meant to report trends to inform industry/professional practices to insiders)

-News or Commentary (wide range of reporting quality and information vetting possible, writers not necessarily subject experts, but may be accomplished journalists, may not even be good journalists,  meant to inform, influence, and/or entertain the general public)

-Popular magazines (wide range of reporting quality and information vetting possible, writers not necessarily subject experts, but may be accomplished journalists, may not even be good journalists,  meant to inform, influence, and/or entertain the general public)
 

3. Discussion:

What are the different types of online databases sources to find articles from periodicals?

A. School Product Database Sites (paid subscription $$$):

-Includes articles from many different kinds of periodicals, , including proprietary materials.

-Example:

Science in Context (available through Amity)

 

B. Specialized Databases (paid subscription $$$):

-Includes articles from many different periodicals in specific subjects.

Examples:

PsycINFO (psychology, and related fields, not through Amity)

EBSCO’s ERIC (Education)

 

C. Multi-disciplinary Databases (paid subscription $$$):

-Connects information from different specialized databases from different subject areas.

Example:

Academic Search Complete (available Amity)

 

D. Library “Aggregators”.

-Offer searching of all or most databases from a single search box.

Example:

University Libraries

ResearchIT CT (the Connecticut State Online Library)

 

4. School Product Database Site: Science in Context, mix of periodicals

Main points:

-Look at the Lesson Plan to review what we discussed.

 

5. Search Science in Context,  and find a find a relevant article that addresses their topic.

-Use tools to search for topic, play around for a few minutes.

-Choose an article, skim it.

-Post citation information and “Tweet”-summary of what it is about (one long sentence, max) in this Google doc.

-Prepare to share an observation about how you did your search.

 

6. Present a Multi-disciplinary Database: ESBCO:  Academic Search Complete:  mix of periodicals

Main points:

-Look at the Lesson Plan to review what we discussed.

 

7. Search Academic Search COMPLETE and find a find a relevant article that is likely to discuss their topic.

-Use tools to search for topic, play around for a few minutes.

-Choose an article, skim it.

-Post citation information and “Tweet”-summary of what it is about (one long sentence, max) in this Google doc.

-Prepare to share an observation about how you did your search.

 

Additional Tips:

-Get a library card so you can use ResearchIT CT at home.

-Practice searching the databases discussed from our web page:

-Science in Context

-Academic Search Complete

-ResearchIT CT/Resources for High Schools/ (all the databases for journals)

-You are MORE likely to find something useful for school FASTER from a paid database than from a web search.

-Everything that ISN’T useful has NOT been included.

-Everything you find in a full-text search is really available, as opposed to just being a summary (abstract).

-You can avoid “pseudo-authoritative” sources written by people who confuse opinion with science, and beliefs with objective facts.

 

Additional Resources

General Format for Journal Article Summary from Joy Hendrick, PhD, Suny Cortland

Creating Citations in NoodleTools

Science Research I

Introduction to Citations, References, and Note-taking with NoodleTools (updated 3-2019)

Information literacy topics:

- Taking notes

- Organizing source citations

- References

- Using technology tools

 

Objective: To understand and define the concept of a research “citation”, and to use a web citation generator (NoodleTools) to create citations and bibliographic references, and organize notes.

 

1: Find the activities for this class, at:

Google search→Amity Library

(tab) Find Online StuffBy SubjectScience

(tab) Class ProjectsScience ResearchIntroduction to Citations, References, and Note-taking with NoodleTools

 

Part A: Understanding and Creating Citations

 

2. Answer the question: “What is a citation?”. Start at 00:41 sec.

 

3. Presentation:View the video, “NoodleTools Tutorial Introduction”, Start at 00:41 sec, and eliminate the wait time.

 

4. Discussion: Analyze this sample citation to see which elements it includes.

“What kind of source is it?”

“Identify each information element of the citation.”

 

"Siamese Fighting Fish." Encyclopedia of Animal, Great Neck Publishing, 2017, p.1. Science Reference Center, search.ebscohost.com. Accessed 19 Mar. 2019.

 

5. Students sign up for accounts in NoodleTools.

- Students who have signed on to NoodleTools on or after September, 2018:

- Using your @amityschools.org Google sign-on to log on to NoodleTools.

- Students who have NOT signed on to NoodleTools on or after September, 2018:

- Follow these instructions to create a NoodleTools account.

 

6. Create a project to begin citations.

 

6.a. Click on “New Project”.

 

 

6.b. Enter a “Project Title”.

6.c. Choose “MLA” style (for this class), and click the “Advanced” citation level for full functionality. Click “Submit”.

 

 

6.d. Write a “Research Question” (think of something related to your topic).

6.e. Write a “Thesis” statement. This is the statement or question you will prove or discuss.

6.f. Click the “Projects” tab to view your project list.

 

 

6.g. Click on the name of your project to open it.

 

 

6.h. Click on the “Sources” tab. You are now ready to cite a source.

 

7. Create a COPY AND PASTE citation for an encyclopedic database article.

7.a. Go to this article from the database Science Reference Center, published by EBSCO titled “Siamese Fighting Fish”..

7.b. Click on “Citation Tools” in the top left of the page.

7.c. COPY the citation (use MLA format).

7.d. Return to NoodleTools, and click on “Create a New Citation”.

7.e. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Note that the choice here refers to WHERE the source was found, not what KIND of source it is. Choose “Database”.

7.f. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”.Choose “Reference Source” (because this article is from an encyclopedia).

 

 

7.g. Click “Quick Cite”: Copy & Paste Citation”.  Paste in the citation you copied.

7.h. Click “Submit”. Look at your citation.

 

“Siamese Fighting Fish.” Encyclopedia of Animals, Aug. 2017, p. 1. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,sso&db=sch&AN=20073653&site=scirc-live&custid=s9389921.

8. Create a MANUAL citation for an encyclopedic database article..

8.a. Go to the same article from the database Science Reference Center, published by EBSCO titled “Siamese Fighting Fish”.

8.b. From the Sources tab, click on “Create a New Citation”.

8.c. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Once again choose “Database”.

8.d. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”.Choose “Reference Source” (because this article is from an encyclopedia).

 

 

8.e. Start filling in as much information as you can, copying from the article, and adjusting the text as needed. Notice the pop-up hints.

Helpful pointers:

Much of the information is not visible on the article page.  Take it from the copy-paste citation.

8.f. Click “Submit”.

8.g. Compare your finished citation to the citation below.

 

"Siamese Fighting Fish." Encyclopedia of Animal, Great Neck Publishing, 2017, p.1. Science Reference Center, search.ebscohost.com. Accessed 19 Mar. 2019.

 

8.h. Look at the differences (possibly due to different citation style versions, or errors in the database or NoodleTools).

 

Copy/paste

“Siamese Fighting Fish.” Encyclopedia of Animals, Aug. 2017, p. 1. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,sso&db=sch&AN=20073653&site=scirc-live&custid=s9389921.

 

The citations show some differences, which suggest that it is safer to create your own, than to use the automatic citation generators of the database companies.

Note that the long URL is not needed. It can be shorted after the full domain name.

Note the suggested change to the URL, for the following reasons:

 

- Angela Gibson of the MLA advice page notes MLA’s “recommendation to use permalinks and DOIs when such information is available.”  

- She also suggestions avoiding excessively long URLS that are confusing, preferring instead the “core”, or “host” information, including the domain. “The MLA Handbook advises writers to truncate a URL in one specific way (by omitting the protocol and //). If you need to shorten it further, retain the host, which will allow readers to evaluate the site and search for the source.”

 

9. Create a MANUAL citation for a MAGAZINE article from a database.

9.a. Go to this article titled: “Does Your Dog Know What You Are Thinking?”, from the database Academic Search Complete, published by the EBSCO company.

9.b. Back in NoodleTools, from the Sources tab, click on “Create a New Citation”.

9.c. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Once again choose “Database”.

9.d. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”. Choose “Magazine” because this is an article in a magazine called “Maclean’s”.

9.e. Start filling in as much information as you can, copying from the article:

- Name of the database: Find it. Distinguish between the database and the company that published it.

- URL: find the "permalink" on the right, because it does not change.

- DOI (Direct Object Identifier): find it.  There may not always be one.

- Most recent date of access: today

- Author: find it or them. Add multiple authors if needed.

- Database accession number: find it

- Article title: find it

- Pages: find them if they are noted.

- Name of magazine: find it

- Volume: find it

- Issue: find it (same as “Number”)

- Publication date: find it

9.f. Click “Submit”.

9.g. Compare your finished citation to the citation below.

 

Lunau, Kate. "Does Your Dog Know What You Are Thinking?" Maclean's, vol. 126,  no. 33, 26 Aug. 2013, pp. 64-67. Academic Search Complete, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=101574874&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 4 Dec. 2017.

 

9.h. Now compare your finished citation to the copy-paste citation provided by EBSCO.  Look at the differences (possibly due to different citation style versions,

 

Copy/Paste provided by EBSCO

LUNAU, KATE.  “Does Your Dog Know What You Are Thinking?” Maclean’s, vol. 126, no. 33, Aug. 2013, pp. 64–67. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,sso&db=a9h&AN=101574874&site=ehost-live&custid=s9389921.

 

In this case, there are several differences.

 

Explanations of differences (quoted material from MLA online):

- Author: EBSCO’s citation incorrectly used all capital letters for the author.

- Database: EBSCO’s citation is not naming the specific database, as it should.

- Access date: EBSCO is not adding the access date because it is optional.

 

10. Create a MANUAL citation for a journal article from a database.

10.a. Go to this article titled: “A Review of Cognitive Abilities in Dogs, 1911 Through 2016: More Individual Differences, Please!”, from the database Academic Search Complete, published by the EBSCO company.

10.b. Back in NoodleTools, from the Sources tab, click on “Create a New Citation”.

10.c. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Once again choose “Database”.

10.d. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”. Choose “Journal” because this is an article in a magazine called “Current Directions in Psychological Science”.

10.e. Start filling in as much information as you can, copying from the article.

Look at the previous step for reminders of the information to be filled in.

10.f. Click “Submit”.

10.g. Compare your finished citation to the citation below.

 

Arden, Rosalind, et al. "A Review of Cognitive Abilities in Dogs, 1911 through 2016: More Individual Differences, Please!" Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 25, no. 5, Oct. 2016, pp. 307-12. Academic Search Complete, doi:10.1177/0963721416667718. Accessed 4 Dec. 2017.

 

10.h. Now compare your finished citation to the copy-paste citation provided by EBSCO.  Look at the differences (possibly due to different citation style versions, or errors in the database or NoodleTools).

 

Copy/Paste provided by History Resource Center

Arden, Rosalind, et al. “A Review of Cognitive Abilities in Dogs, 1911 Through 2016: More Individual Differences, Please!” Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 25, no. 5, Oct. 2016, pp. 307–312. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/0963721416667718.

 

Explanations of differences:

- Database: EBSCO’s citation is not naming the specific database, as it should.

- Access date: EBSCO is not adding the access date because it is optional.

 

11. Create a MANUAL citation from a web page.

11.a. Go to this web page entitled “Why Study Dog Cognition”, from the website: Duke Canine Cognition Center, at Duke University.

11.b. Back in NoodleTools, from the Sources tab, click on “Create a New Citation”.

11.c. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Once again choose “Website”.

11.d. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”. Choose “Web page” because this online article is really a page in the larger museum web site.

11.e. Start filling in as much information as you can, copying from the article:

- URL: find it

- Date of publication: find it; if none, leave it blank.

- Most recent date of access: use today

- Contributors: find the author, if there is one

- Web Page or document/article title: Find the article title

- Name of the website: find it (not the same as the publisher)

- Publisher of the site: Find it (bottom of page)

- Editors of the site as a whole: Often hard to find, sometimes not available.

11.f. Click “Submit”.

11.g. Compare your finished citation to the citation below.

 

"Why Study Dog Cognition." Duke Canine Cognition Center, Duke University,  evolutionaryanthropology.duke.edu/research/dogs/research. Accessed 4 Dec.  2017

Explanations:

- Author: None is listed.

- Editor: Though we can find a department head, we can’t assume that it is an editor.

 

Citing your sources within your paper

- How do you cite the article in the body of your paper?

- After the quotation, fact, opinion, or idea that you use in your paper, place your "in-text" citation to credit that source.  Put it at the end of the sentence, before the punctuation mark.

- The citation is usually the author's last name, followed by a page number (both in parenthesis).

- If you use the author's name in the sentence, then the citation is just the page number (in parenthesis).

- If there is no author, use the first few words of whatever the citation starts with in the "Works Cited" list, with a page number, if there is one.

- If the first few words are of an article, put them in quotes.

- Look at the sample page from Purdue University’s writing site.

- You will need to follow the instructions and examples from a reliable source, like the writing experts at Purdue University’s OWL MLA style pages.

 

How do you organize the Works Cited page?  

- The "Works Cited" page goes at the end of the document. Give it the title, "Works Cited".

- Put citations in alphabetical order of author. If there is no author, put citations in order of the first work of the citation.

 

Class Notes

What is a citation?

A citation is all the information you need to tell where an idea or quotation came from, and to be able to find that source again.

 

“What kind of information is included in a citation?”

- author

- title

- place it can be found (database, book collection, etc.)

- publisher

- city of publication

- date of publication

- medium (type of publication), like Print, Web, File, Film, CD-ROM, DVD, etc.

- date you found it (electronic resources)

- web address (URL) or permanent web identifier (d.o.i.)

Note: the medium (type) of publication may be: Print, Web, File, Film, CD-ROM, DVD, etc. and more, depending on the kind of information

 

Note: the medium (type) of publication may be: Print, Web, File, Film, CD-ROM, DVD, etc. and more, depending on the kind of information.

Science Research I: How to Read a Scientific Article

Science Research 1

How to Read a Scientific Article (updated 2-2019)

Information literacy topics:

  • Evaluating sources (Interpreting information critically)

 

Objective:

To describe the content and function of the different sections of a scientific article, and to demonstrate effective reading by answering relevant questions about each section.

 

PRE-READING:

Before class, read the 1.) “Abstract” and 2.) “Discussion” sections of this sample science article and complete this post-reading form to show your understanding. 

 

Warm-up:

Note down the purpose of each of the following pieces of “container” information for a scientific article: “Title”, “Author”, “Institution”, and “Contact Information”.

 

1. Discussion:

Put the 6 sections of a scientific article in the customary publishing order.

 

2. Discussion:

Review the order of sections, propose alternative reading order to make reading easier.

 

3. Discussion:

  • Identify content and purpose of each section.

  • Create questions to answer while reading.

 

4. Viewing:

View this video about dog behavior.

 

5. Practice:

Refer to “Discussion” section to answer the following questions:

  • What conclusions do the researchers draw from the findings?

  • Why do you think the conclusion is or is not consistent with the results/observations?

  • What bias (if any) can you identify in the conclusion?

  • What (if any) limitations apply to the conclusions?

  • What are the implications of these results to the topic/field?

  • What next steps are proposed for research?

 

6. Discussion:

Students discuss their answers to the questions.

 

If time allows:

Students try to answer some of the questions from the “Introduction” section of the article from what you have already read, or get from skimming.

  • What is the broad issue being addressed in the Literature Review? Is it made clear?

  • What is the narrower problem addressed in the study? Is its relationship/importance to the broader issue clear?

  • What is/are the exact research question(s) being studied?

  • What are the variables being tested?

  • What are the hypotheses proposed?

  • What (if any) are the causal relationships among variables being studied?

  • If there are causal relationships, what are the independent and dependent variables?

  • What are the assumptions made by the investigator?

 

Student Notes:

Full presentation and text notes are available below.

 

Notes:

Full presentation and text notes are available below.

Presentation Tools

Infographics:

Canva : Canva gives you everything you need to easily turn ideas into stunning designs. Create designs for Web or print: blog graphics, presentations, Facebook covers, flyers, posters, invitations and so much more.

Piktochart : Piktochart is an easy infographic design app that requires very little effort to produce beautiful, high quality graphics.

Infogram : Use Infogram to create infographics and interactive online charts. It's free and super-easy!

Glogster : Glogster allows users to mix all kinds of media on a one virtual canvas to create multimedia posters, and access a library of engaging educational content created by students and educators worldwide. (Not Free).

Mind Maps and More:

Popplet : Use Popplet in the classroom and at home, students use Popplet for learning. Used as a mind-map, Popplet helps students think and learn visually. Students can capture facts, thoughts, and images and learn to create relationships between them.  Also available as an app for your device!

InstaGrok: instaGrok is an innovative educational search engine that combines sophisticated semantic technology with an interactive user interface to make learning more engaging, personalized and fun for everyone.

Coggle : Use Coggle to produce beautiful notes, quickly and easily. Share them with friends and colleagues to enhance your ideas collaboratively. All for free!

Bubbl : Use Bubbl for free to create up to 3 mind maps. Save your work as an image or HTML. Share mind maps with your peers.


 

Cartooning:

Powtoon: PowToon is the world’s most minimalist, user friendly and intuitive presentation software that allows someone with no technical or design skills to create engaging professional “look and feel” animated presentations. Their aim is to establish a new presentation category called “powtoon” – a combination of presentation and animated cartoon – as the industry standard for evolved (animated) presentations.

GoAnimate: GoAnimate videos could and should be everywhere. Explain complex topics, exercise higher order thinking skills (such as creativity and critical thinking) in the classroom.


Voki: Use Voki to create speaking avatars. Introduce material in a fun way. Great way to present a project.


Bitstrips: Bitstrips is your online funny pages. Turn yourself and your friends into cartoon characters, and create and share your own awesome comic strips!

Web 2.0

Emaze: Emaze features a proprietary state of art HTML5 presentation designer. You can even create your presentation in 3D! The application has a similar style to Prezi when it comes to transitions, but Emaze takes it to the next level.  

Link: www.emaze.com

Preview Video: https://youtu.be/VL7peSju6bc

Pear Deck: Pear Deck takes an engaging approach to presentation. When a teacher starts presenting, students join the presentation via a unique code on their own device. Teachers control the slides and students follow along. Pear Deck also allows teachers to embed actionable content into their presentation. Draggable icons, real time drawings and more. Student can then interact with the slides from their own device and teachers receive the data on how they interacted. You really have to see this one.  

Link: www.peardeck.com

Preview Video: https://youtu.be/evoJy4WcReM

Visme: Visme is similar to Canva in the sense that it is more than just a tool for creating presentations. You can create charts, reports, infographics, and much more. The site offers a wide array of templates, all which are fully customizable to meet your needs. The software ties into other sites such as Flikr to offer millions of images, vector graphics, and icons to make your presentation stand out. Visme lives up to its “multi tool” label with its rich feature set and visually appealing design.  

Link: www.visme.co

Preview Video: https://youtu.be/UbtT2jcmQ1s

Moovly: Moovly is a cloud-based digital media and content creation platform. The company was founded in 2013 but the idea to democratize animated videos originated earlier within Instruxion, a company specialized in custom high-impact digital content.

Link: www.moovly.com

Amity High School, Amity Region 5 School District, Woodbridge, CT 06525, 203-397-4844 Librarians: Robert F. Musco and Victoria Hulse Copyright 2017