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AHS Subject Guides: English: W. Rocco AP Capstone

This guide includes print and online resources for English: Courses include: English Literature, Communication, Expository Writing, Creative Writing, Journalism, Humanities, Reading, etc.

Rocco: AP Capstone: Finding and Evaluating Open Web Sources

Bill Rocco

AP Capstone (English)

Finding and Evaluating Open Web Sources (updated 2017-18)

Information literacy topics:

  • Determining best sources

  • Searching strategies for information

  • Evaluating sources

  • Using technology tools

 

Objective: To learn to find relevant and reliable open web research sources, to evaluate these sources for reliability, and to use appropriate technology tools.

 

1.Go to activity guide online at:

Amity website→High SchoolAHS Library Information Center

Find Online Stuff→By Subject→History→Class Projects →Rocco AP Capston→Finding and Evaluating Open Web Sources

 

 

2. Individual Analysis:

We have all heard something about the ongoing dispute about whether or not immigration creates a loss of jobs for “native”, meaning non-immigrant, Americans. Imagine that your job is to investigate this question. You will need to research how illegal immigration affects the labor market for these Americans, and whether or not immigration results in economic benefits or losses to American workers, and the American economy as a whole.

Skim this document. Look at the beginning and the end of the document, as well as the web information.

The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration

 

 

2.b. Respond to this statement. You have 3 minutes:

“This web resource has been judged to offer credible information that is appropriate for academic research. Find at least 3 reasons to show that this is true.”

 

 

3. Share reasons why this website is appropriate for research (why the information here can be trusted).

 

4. Brainstorm and list various search terms from a topic sentence.

“Though the overall effect of immigration on employment and wages for native-born Americans in the United States is negligible, certain specific groups may find themselves negatively impacted.”

 

  • Think of key words or common expressions specific to the topic

  • Think of synonyms:

  • Think of the most important terms:

  • Think of terms that might sometimes be too limiting:

  • Use “...” for phrases, ANDs, ORs, and parenthesis to structure search

 

Sample search: ??, ???, and ????

 

 

5. Practice: Search for a reliable research site, identifying the following information on this FORM. The source does NOT have to be reliable; all that matters is evaluating it thoroughly.

 

For more information, see the attached Student Notes below.

Database Searching and the Power of Limiters

AP Capstone

Database Searching and the Power of Limiters (9-2018)

Information literacy topics:

-Determining best sources

-Searching strategies for information

-Evaluating sources

-Using technology tools

 

Objective: To perform an efficient search for peer-reviewed academic journal articles, and/or magazine and newspaper articles on a given topic, using limiters in a college-level database (EBSCO’s Academic Search Complete)

 

1: Find the activities for this class, at:

Amity website→High SchoolAHS Library Information Center

(tab) Find Online Stuff→By Subject→Science

(tab) Class Projects →CournoyerDatabase Searching and the Power of Limiters


 

2. Objective: What do we want to accomplish today?

To perform an efficient search for peer-reviewed academic journal articles, and/or magazine and newspaper articles on a given topic, using limiters in a college-level database (EBSCO’s Academic Search Complete)

 

3. Choosing the best resource:

Most complete database for journal articles:         

Academic Search Complete

All Topics, All Formats, 9000 Academic Journals

    

Academic Search COMPLETE: From the publisher EBSCO, Academic Search Complete has the largest number of peer-reviewed academic journals (9000) of all our databases, through a wide range of academic disciplines, from the behavioral and technical sciences, through education, theatre, and many more. It includes some popular magazines as well as scholarly journals.

 

Databases on other topics:

GreenFile

Environmental Topics, All Formats

 

……………………………………..

Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)

Education Topics, All Formats

……………………………………..

 

4. Searching strategy: Search Terms

ESBCO:  Academic Search COMPLETE:

Main points:

-Take note of your surroundings:  Look at main menus, search options, etc..

-Search box:

-Always give yourself more options with an “Advanced Search”.

-Consider what you are searching for: Title? Author? Subject? Word in text?

-Start simple.  You can always add more words to narrow down.

-Too many results and not really relevant? Add more words to narrow down.

-Too few results? Broaden your search with fewer words.

-Use more advanced techniques:

-Try with synonyms or related words (immigration and costs/consequences/impact/economic impact, etc.)

-Use commands (“operators”) to narrow down: AND (to get both terms), OR (for one OR the other), NOT (to filter out the word), apostrophes around several words like “economic impact” or “economic cost” to get the exact phrase

-Notice what appears when you start to type “immigration”. How many results do you get? How does it change when you add “economy”. How about “effects”?

-Always limit to full-text, if it is what you need.

-Focus on results, and LEFT sidebar

-Notice the number of hits for each Source Type.

-Notice other “limiters”. Which are useful for our search?

 

5. Discussion:

-Use LIMITERS

-Notice the number of hits for each Source Type.

-Use checkbox “limiters” on the LEFT sidebar to LIMIT your search by:

-Full-text.

-Publication Date

-Source Type (only Academic Journals? Magazines? Newspapers?)

-Etc.

-When you identify a good source/article:

-Choose a relevant article, and notice the related SUBJECTS.

-Follow up on subject leads that appear in relevant articles. Remember, hey were chosen by humans: (how about IMMIGRATION law -- United States; GOVERNMENT policy; IMMIGRATION opponents; EMIGRATION & immigration -- Economic aspects;?).

-Save your chosen results to avoid losing stuff (use personal lists, email, notes/citation tools, etc.). Add a user name and password to save searches and result.

Rocco: AP Capstone NoodleTools Citations

Rocco

AP Research/Seminar

NoodleTools Citations and Notes

Information literacy topics:

- Taking notes

- Organizing source citations

- References

- Using technology tools

 

Objective: To understand and define the concept of a research “citation”, and to use a web citation generator (NoodleTools) to create citations and bibliographic references. To describe three categories of notes based on research, and to write and organize notes online in NoodleTools.

 

1: Find the activities for this class, at:

Amity website→High SchoolAHS Library Information Center

(tab) Find Online Stuff→By Subject→English

(tab) Class Projects →Rocco: College Research→ NoodleTools Citations and Notes

 

Part A: Understanding and Creating Citations

 

2. Answer the question: “What is a citation?”. Start at 00:41 sec.

 

3. Presentation:View the video, “NoodleTools Tutorial Introduction”, Start at 00:41 sec, and eliminate the wait time.

 

4. Discussion: Analyze this sample citation to see which elements it includes.

 

“What kind of source is it?”

“Identify each information element of the citation.”

Begley, Sharon. "The Anatomy of Violence." Newsweek Vol. CXLIX, No. 18. 30 Apr. 2007: 40-46. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 22 Sep. 2016

 

5. Students sign up for accounts in NoodleTools.

- Students who have signed on to NoodleTools on or after September, 2018:

- Using your @amityschools.org Google sign-on to log on to NoodleTools.

- Students who have NOT signed on to NoodleTools on or after September, 2018:

- Follow these instructions to create a NoodleTools account.

 

6. Create a project to begin citations.

6.a. Click on “New Project”.

 

6.b. Enter a “Project Title”.

6.c. Choose “MLA” style (for this English class), and click the “Advanced” citation level for full functionality. Click “Submit”.

 

6.d. Write a “Research Question” (think of something related to your topic).

6.e. Write a “Thesis” statement. This is the statement or question you will prove or discuss.

6.f. Click the “Projects” tab to view your project list.

 

6.g. Click on the name of your project to open it.

 

 

6.h. Click on the “Sources” tab. You are now ready to cite a source.

 

7. Create a COPY AND PASTE citation for a database article (SIRS). 

7.a. Go to this article from the SIRS database: “The Anatomy of Violence”.

7.b. Find the MLA citation at the end of the article, or click on “Cite” in the sidebar.

7.c. COPY the citation for practice (use MLA format).

7.d. Return to NoodleTools, and click on “Create a New Citation”.

7.e. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Note that the choice here refers to WHERE the source was found, not what KIND of source it is. Choose “Database”.

7.f. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”.Choose “Magazine” (because the citation shows this article was written for Newsweek).

 

7.g. Click “Quick Cite”: Copy & Paste Citation”.  Paste in the citation you copied.

7.h. Click “Submit”. Look at your citation.

 

8. Student practice: creating a MANUAL citation for a database article (SIRS). 

8.a. Return to the previous article from the SIRS database: “The Anatomy of Violence”.

8.b. Back in NoodleTools, from the Sources tab, click on “Create a New Citation”.

8.c. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Once again choose “Database”.

8.d. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”. Once again choose “Magazine”.

 

8.e. Start filling in as much information as you can, copying from the article, and adjusting the text as needed. Notice the pop-up hints.

 

8.f. Click “Submit”.

Helpful pointers:

- Did you fill in the date you got the article?

- Did you use the HOME page URL since the article URL was so long and complicated?

 

8.g. Now compare your two citations.

 

Begley, Sharon. "The Anatomy of Violence." Newsweek, vol. CXLIX, no. 18, 30 Apr. 2007, pp. 40-46. SIRS Issues Researcher, sks.sirs.com. Accessed 22 Sept. 2016.

 

Begley, Sharon. "The Anatomy of Violence." Newsweek Vol. CXLIX, No. 18. 30 Apr. 2007: 40-46. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 22 Sep. 2016.

 

When they are different, it is usually because you either did not include all the citation information, OR because the citation you copied from the database was not correct, OR because the citation software is not always right or using the same format edition.  What do think are the reasons here?

Remember that databases are not always capable of interpreting information correctly, especially unusual author formats.

9. Student practice: Create a MANUAL citation for a database article (EBSCO).

Create a MANUAL citation for a database article.

9.a. Go to the article “The Autogenic (self-generated) Massacre” in the EBSCO company’s database Academic Search Complete.

9.b. Back in NoodleTools, from the Sources tab, click on “Create a New Citation”.

9.c. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Once again choose “Database”.

9.d. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”. Choose “Journal” because this is an article in an academic journal called “Behavioral Sciences”.

9.e. Start filling in as much information as you can, copying from the article:

- Name of database: find it

- URL: find the "permalink" on the right, OR use the root URL of the database if the link is very long.

- DOI (Direct Object Identifier): find it

- Most recent date of access: (today)

- Author: find it

- Article title: find it

- Pages: find it

- Name of journal: find it

- Volume: find it

- Issue: find it (same as “Number”)

- Publication date: find it

- Series: there is none listed

9.f. Click “Submit”.

Mullen, Paul E. "The Autogenic (Self-generated) Massacre." Behavioral Sciences & the Law, vol. 22, no. 3, May 2004, pp. 311-23. Academic Search Premier, doi:10.1002/bsl.564. Accessed 24 Sept. 2016

 

10. Student practice: Creating a MANUAL citation for a book.

Create a MANUAL citation for a book.

10.a. View the PDF of the book “Extreme Killing: Understanding Serial and Mass Murder”..

10.b. Return to NoodleTools, and repeat the steps to make a new citation.

10.c. Click on “Create a New Citation”.

10.d. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Choose “Print or in-hand”. We will pretend we have the print version.

10.e. Choose “Book”.

10.d. Fill in all the relevant information. Notice the following:

- Information on the book cover.

- Information on the title page.

- Information on the copyright page..

- We will NOT fill in the “Chapter and Section” information, or page numbers, because here we are citing the whole book.

- “Add another contributor” allows more than one personal credit.

- Note the specific “Role” (author? Editor? Contributor?)

- Note the spaces for information related to multi-volume or series books, though they don’t apply here.

- Click “Submit”.

10.e. Compare your finished citation to the citation below. Are there any differences?

Fox, James Allen, and Jack Levin. Extreme Killing: Understanding Serial and Mass Murder. 3rd ed., Los Angeles, Sage Publications, 2015.

Citing your sources within your paper

- How do you cite the article in the body of your paper?

- After the quotation, fact, opinion, or idea that you use in your paper, place your "in-text" citation to credit that source.  Put it at the end of the sentence, before the punctuation mark.

- The citation is usually the author's last name, followed by a page number (both in parenthesis).

- If you use the author's name in the sentence, then the citation is just the page number (in parenthesis).

- If there is no author, use the first few words of whatever the citation starts with in the "Works Cited" list, with a page number, if there is one.

- If the first few words are of an article, put them in quotes.

Notice:

- In-text citations used for the 1st time.

- In-text citation used 2nd or more times consecutively.

- In-text citation used 2nd time, but not in a row.

- Works Cited list at the end.

- Look at the sample page from Purdue University’s writing site.

- You will need to follow the instructions and examples from a reliable source, like the writing experts at Purdue University’s OWL MLA style pages.

-You can also look at the Amity Librarians’ MLA Quick Guide, with examples from the most common kinds of formats.

 

How do you organize the Works Cited page?  

 

- The "Works Cited" page goes at the end of the document. Give it the title, "Works Cited".

- Put citations in alphabetical order of author. If there is no author, put citations in order of the first work of the citation.

Rocco: AP Capstone Intro to NoodleTools Notes

Part B: Understanding Notes (Updated 9-2016, R. Musco)

 

11. Discussion: What is a note? What is the purpose of taking notes?

Your notes should be focused on information RELEVANT to your topic.

  • A. Recording empirical facts.

  • B. Recording author’s conclusions.

  • C. Recording your own synthesis of facts or author’s conclusions.

 

Examples:

  • It is unquestionably the moral obligation of the rest of the world, particularly the United States, to begin to share the responsibility of taking in refugees.

  • The displacement of people in forced migrations since the start of the New Millennium has created far greater economic loss from lost productivity than World War II.

  • Germany’s willingness to admit the lion’s share of today’s refugees in part responds to her citizens’ recognition of the historic debt owed the world.

 

Part C: Creating and Organizing Notes in Noodletools

 

12. Create a new note.

12.a. On the “Projects” page, click on your practice project to get to the “Dashboard” tab. Once there, click on the “Notecards” tab.,

 

12.b. Click “+New” to create a new note.

 

Consider this broad topic: “The Relationship between Mass Violence and Fame”

 

 

13. Read and take notes to record empirical facts.

13.a. Read this excerpt from the WEB article from the FBI (PDF also available).

13.b. Identify a meaningful FACT from this excerpt.

 

13.c. Write a “Title” that represents the basic idea of your note.

13.d. Choose one of your source citations from the dropdown menu (pretend that one of your practice citations is for this source).

13.e. Cut and paste a “Direct quotation”, or a “paraphrase or summary” of the fact you have identified.

13.f. Hint: if you paraphrase, you should take the time to create a well-written note NOW, that could get slotted right in your paper.

 

13.g. Be sure to add a “Tag”. Tags represent the specific topic or theme of the note. Tags with more than one word should be in quotes.

13.h. Click “Save and Close”.


14. Read and take a note to record author’s conclusions.

14.a. Read this excerpt from the BOOK source.

14.b. Identify a relevant conclusion that the author has drawn, and Use your own words to PARAPHRASE the idea.

Hint: take the time to create a well-written note NOW, that could get slotted right in your paper.

14.c.  Follow the same steps as the last note you just did.

You DO need a page number for a book.

 

15. Read and take a note to record your own synthesis of facts or author’s conclusions.

15.a. Read this excerpt from the DATABASE article source. Read only the conclusion at the end of the article.

15.b. Draw your OWN relevant conclusion, deduction, observation, opinion about facts or the author’s conclusions. Do NOT say anything like “I think”, or “I feel”.

15.d. Follow the same steps as the last note you just did.

 

 

16. Group notes together by common topics/themes.

16.a. Drag one note on top of the other, and release it to create a “Pile” (terrible name).

 

16.b. Name your “Pile” . A “Pile” name can be a category/theme/topic that both notes address. We are pretending that the two notes deal with the same specific topic.

16.c. Click OK.

16.d. Create two more new notes, and make a new “Pile”.

 

 

17. Convert notes to outlines.

17.a. Click the “Add+” button to create a few headings. You can change the name of topics by double-clicking, and rearrange the hierarchy by dragging and dropping.

 

 

17.b. Now DRAG one of your piles, or loose notes, right on top of any outline heading on the right until the heading is highlighted, and DROP it there.  It will now appear as a note in that heading of the outline. You can rearrange the notes in the outline by dragging and dropping.

 

 

18. Export or print notes.

 

18.a. On the Notecard desktop, click “Print” to export your saved notes.

18.b. Notice the export options.  Choose one, and practice downloading exported notes. Note that choosing Google requires signing into your Google account.


19. Create the beginnings of a formatted paper in NoodleTools

19.a. In reality, the “Paper” option does not do any automated formatting. It simply opens a new Google Doc from NoodleTools.

My suggestion is to build a paper by copying and pasting Notecards as they are exported to Google Docs. Once all notes are compiled, and you begin writing, you can start to add citations and footnotes, if needed.

Rocco AP Capstone: Focus on Types of Sources

AP Capstone

Focus on Types of Source Material for Research

Information literacy topics covered

  • Determining best sources

  • Searching strategies for information

  • Evaluating sources

  • References

  • Using technology tools

 

1. Objective: To identify different types of source material found on the web, determine the appropriateness of the source to support specific statements, and create correctly-formatted MLA source citations.

 

2. Discussion: When do you need to cite sources?

You MUST cite sources to attribute authorship when you use...

  • Facts taken from a source, that are not common knowledge, whether quoting directly or paraphrasing.

  • Another author’s conclusions, opinion, or point of view, whether quoting directly or paraphrasing.

 

You DO NOT NEED to cite sources to attribute authorship when you use…

  • Your own analysis, conclusions, observations, judgments drawn from facts taken from a source or another author’s conclusions. Of course, as part of your discussion you will have to include those facts or conclusions from the source, and at that time will need to cite them.

 

 

3. Presentation: Our hypothetical paper. Imagine that we are writing a paper called:

Why Our Immigration Policy is No Policy at All

Thesis/Research statement/question:

In spite of rhetoric from competing political parties calling for “immigration reform”, there is little political will for real policy change on either side of the aisle.

 

4. Practice:

For each example of a resource found for this research topic, complete the following

a. Look at this source carefully.

b. What exact kind of source is this?  Be very specific.

c. State whether or not this source can be used to make the following statement in your paper. Why?

d.Create a correctly formatted citation in NoodleTools (MLA). Be complete.


 

4.a. Sample resource:

ARIZONA ET AL. v. UNITED STATES

a. Look at this source carefully.

b. What exact kind of source is this?  Be very specific.

c. State whether or not this source can be used to make the following statement in your paper. Why?

d.Create a correctly formatted citation in NoodleTools (MLA). Be complete.

 

You write:

The Supreme Court barred states from charging undocumented immigrants with a crime for working without a permit, saying that Congress, in passing the Federal law, had explicitly rejected punishing individuals for working.

(possible answer: Yes, because the statement sums up the decision explained in the court document.)

 

You write:

The decision in ARIZONA ET AL. v. UNITED STATES is not so much a defense of an undocumented individual’s rights, as an affirmation of federal legislation taking precedence over state law.

 

4.b. Sample resource:

Who Are They and Where Do They Come From?

a. Look at this source carefully.

b. What exact kind of source is this?  Be very specific.

c. State whether or not this source can be used to make the following statement in your paper. Why?

d.Create a correctly formatted citation in NoodleTools (MLA). Be complete.

 

You write:

Attempts to limit immigration in the U.S. are not new. Even in the 19th century complaints were voiced, pointing at immigrants as a source of “cheap labor, ignorant labor” that contributed to lower wages.   

 

4.c. Sample resource:

Dwindling Hopes for Immigration Reform (if it doesn’t work, try Proquest directly).

a. Look at this source carefully.

b. What exact kind of source is this?  Be very specific.

c. State whether or not this source can be used to make the following statement in your paper. Why?

d.Create a correctly formatted citation in NoodleTools (MLA). Be complete.

 

You write:

From a purely legal point of view, President Obama’s executive action putting a hold on many deportations for illegal immigrants who had committed no other crimes, was completely within his power as president.

 

4.d. Sample resource:

Bill Maher owns Ann Coulter in immigration debate

a. Look at this source carefully.

b. What exact kind of source is this?  Be very specific.

c. State whether or not this source can be used to make the following statement in your paper. Why?

d.Create a correctly formatted citation in NoodleTools (MLA). Be complete.

 

You write:

Pundit and media personality Ann Coulter, justifying the imposition of stricter immigration policies on “Real Time with Bill Maher,” used terms like “lazy” and “rapist.” Such mean-spirited rhetoric often borders on incendiary, and serves to feed xenophobic attitudes that can fuel violence.

 

4.e. Sample resource:

The Impact of Unauthorized Immigrants on the Budgets of State and Local Governments

a. Look at this source carefully.

b. What exact kind of source is this?  Be very specific.

c. State whether or not this source can be used to make the following statement in your paper. Why?

d.Create a correctly formatted citation in NoodleTools (MLA). Be complete.

 

You write:

While healthcare spending in emergency Medicaid for undocumented immigrants amounts to millions of dollars a year, for most states in the country this amount represents only about 1% of total emergency Medicaid expenditures.


 

4.f. Sample resource:

Legislative Background on Immigration Reform

a. Look at this source carefully.

b. What exact kind of source is this?  Be very specific.

c. State whether or not this source can be used to make the following statement in your paper. Why?

d.Create a correctly formatted citation in NoodleTools (MLA). Be complete.?

 

You write:

Though the U.S. government has taken a number of legislative or executive actions in recent years related to immigration, the last time fully “comprehensive” legislation was enacted was in 1996.

 

4.g. Sample resource:

In Absence Of Federal Immigration Reform, States Are Taking Action

a. Look at this source carefully.

b. What exact kind of source is this?  Be very specific.

c. State whether or not this source can be used to make the following statement in your paper. Why?

d.Create a correctly formatted citation in NoodleTools (MLA). Be complete.

 

You write:

In the absence of comprehensive immigration reform at the federal level, individual states have increasingly enacted their own legislation addressing immigrants; across the nation there were ten times the number of state actions enacted in 2013 than in 2005.

 

4.h. Sample resource:

Immigration Update: Maximizing Public Safety and Better Focusing Resources

a. Look at this source carefully.

b. What exact kind of source is this?  Be very specific.

c. State whether or not this source can be used to make the following statement in your paper. Why?

d.Create a correctly formatted citation in NoodleTools (MLA). Be complete.

 

You write:

The current strategy of the administration, which reflects the President’s commitment to safeguarding our nation, focuses deportation efforts on undocumented immigrants engaged in criminal activity, and so “puts public safety and national security first.”

 

4.i. Sample resource:

Refugee Resettlement in the United States

a. Look at this source carefully.

b. What exact kind of source is this?  Be very specific.

c. State whether or not this source can be used to make the following statement in your paper. Why?

d.Create a correctly formatted citation in NoodleTools (MLA). Be complete.

 

You write:

Though the U.S. touts its humanitarian role in aiding refugees, and cites the figure of 3 million refugees resettled in its territory since 1975, it is worth noting that this number represents approximately 75,000 refugees per year--only an additional 3 hundredths of a percent of the total population.

 

Additional Information:

  • Purdue University’s Owl Writing Lab: Take a look at this information on Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing.

  • When every you create a citation, you must also check it over with the MLA Guide at Purdue, or some other reputable site for MLA formatting.  Please keep in mind that your only completely authoritative source for MLA formatting is the MLA website, or the more complete MLA published guide.

Surveys as Data Instruments

Bill Rocco

AP Capstone (English)

A Brief Discussion of Surveys as Data Instruments

Information literacy topics:

  • Creating/Writing a research-based product

 

Objective: To consider a few of the pitfalls of survey design and administration, and potential problems that can affect the validity and reliability of surveys, in light of the specific results of a recent class survey.

 

1. Discussion:

What does a researcher do when survey results give unexpected or inconsistent results?

 

2. Presentation/Discussion

The reliability and the validity of an instrument are closely related

  • Validity determines the degree to which the instrument measures the things it is supposed to measure.

  • Reliability refers to the degree to which an instrument gives results that are consistent:

 

Reliability depends on three factors:

  • Test-retest: The results are similar when the instrument is used at different times

  • Equivalent form: Different forms of the instrument produce similar results

  • Internal consistency: Items designed to measure the same thing give similar results.

 

3. Discussion

Look at the following Library Program Assessment survey given to a class.  Do you see any inconsistencies? (Background: This is a class of seniors, who have already participated in three sessions of information literacy (library) instruction.)

 

4: Presentation

Consider some of the challenges that surveys present.

The information below is taken from Dr. Del Siegle’s website, Educational Research Basics, at the University of Connecticut’s Neag School of Education.


 

Survey Pitfalls

Pitfalls to AVOID when developing a Survey

  1. Beware of jargon terms that a limited number of people may know (Do you favor inclusion?).

  2. Watch out for “fuzzy” words that have ambiguous meaning (Which class is best?).

  3. Do not ask more than one question at a time (Do you favor tax increases and year-around school?).

  4. Avoid loaded or leading questions (Is it important to treat people fairly?).

  5. Make sure that fixed-response questions have a place for every possible answer (Are you a democrat or republican?).

  6. Use filter questions to guide subjects if all of the questions do not need to be answers (i.e., If you answered no to question 1, skip to question).

  7. Minimize the amount of writing the respondents must do.

  8. Put the questions in a logical order. Place sensitive or difficult questions at the end of the survey.

  9. Field test the survey.

 

Amity High School, Amity Region 5 School District, Woodbridge, CT 06525, 203-397-4844 Librarians: Robert F. Musco and Victoria Hulse Copyright 2017