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AHS Subject Guides: History: Carrafiello

This guide includes print and online resources for History/Social Studies: Courses include: American Government, US History, Critical Issues, Geography, Law and Justice, Multiculturalism, World History.

Chicago Style Formatting

Chicago

Citing Chicago Style - Quick Guide

Excellent set of examples published online by the University of Chicago Press (straight from the horse's mouth).

 

Citing Chicago Style - Purdue OWL

Very practical and reliable guide published by renowned Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL).

 

Sample Chicago-style paper:

 

Footnotes and bibliography style paper (works best with Google Docs)

 

Citing Chicago Style - UCP Turabian Citation Guide

Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations presents two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and author-date style (sometimes called reference list style).

 

 

History, Introduction to Citations, References and Notes with NoodleTools

Carrafiello

Modern American History (updated 12-2016, R. Musco)

Introduction to Citations, References, and Note-taking with NoodleTools

Information literacy topics:

  • Taking notes

  • Organizing source citations

  • References

  • Using technology tools

 

Objective: To understand and define the concept of a research “citation”, and to use a web citation generator (EasyBib) to create citations and bibliographic references, and organize notes.

 
 

1: Find the activities for this class, at:

Amity website→High SchoolAHS Library Information Center

(tab) Find Online Stuff→By Subject→History

(tab) Class Projects →Carrafiello→ Introduction to Citations, References, and Note-taking with NoodleTools

 
 

Part A: Understanding and Creating Citations

 

2. Discuss objective.

 

3. Answer the question, “What kind of information is included in a citation?”

 

4. Answer the question, “What kind of source is this?” (see below). What parts of the citation can you identify?

 

Taylor, Maxine. "How did U.S. Isolationism Affect its Participation in World War I?" World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO. Last modified 2016. Accessed September 15, 2016. https://worldatwar.abc-clio.com.

 

5. Sign up for your account in NoodleTools.

 

Activate your own, personal account using our Amity subscription.

5.a. Go to this custom Amity High School Noodle Tools sign-up.

5.b. Click “REGISTER” at the bottom to sign up for a new account.

 
 

5.c. Only if you are outside the school. If you are in school, skip to next step.

Leave the default choice of “An account linked to a school/library subscription”.

Fill in the School/Library Password (ahs) and click “Continue”.

 

5.d. Leave the default choice of “An account linked to a school/library subscription”.

Fill in the New User Registration information, and click “REGISTER”. (Your Personal ID, which is your user name, can be a name or an email address.)

 

5.e. Go to “My Account” in the upper right and “My Profile” in the dropdown menu.

 

5.f. Fill in all the information. If you put in your amityschools.org Google address in “Google Account ID”, you will be able to link to Google Docs.

Click “Save Profile”.

 
 

6. Create a project to begin citations.

6.a. Click on “New Project”.

 

6.b. Enter a “Project Title”.

6.c. Choose “Chicago/Turabian” style (for this History class), and click the “Advanced” citation level for full functionality. Click “Submit”.

 

6.d. Write a “Research Question” (think of something related to your topic).

6.e. Write a “Thesis” statement. This is the statement or question you will prove or discuss.

6.f. Click the “Projects” tab to view your project list.

 

6.g. Click on the name of your project to open it.

 

6.h. Click on the “Sources” tab. You are now ready to cite a source.

 

7. Create a COPY AND PASTE citation for a database article.

7.a. Go to this article from the ABC-Clio database World at War, titled “How Did U.S. Isolationism Affect its Participation in World War I?”.

7.b. Click on “CITE” in the top of the page.

7.c. COPY the citation (use Chigago format).

7.d. Return to NoodleTools, and click on “Create a New Citation”.

7.e. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Note that the choice here refers to WHERE the source was found, not what KIND of source it is. Choose “Database”.

7.f. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”.Choose “Original Content in Database” (because the citation shows this article was written for this database).

 

7.g. Click “Quick Cite”: Copy & Paste Citation”.  Paste in the citation you copied.

7.h. Click “Submit”. Look at your citation.

You can check the accuracy of your citation by looking at the Chicago style guide HERE.

 

Taylor, Maxine. "U.S. Isolationism: Key Question." In World at War:

    Understanding Conflict and Society, ABC-CLIO, 2005. Accessed September 15, 2016. https://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Topics/Display/1289825?cid=9.

 
 

8. Create a MANUAL citation for a database article.

8.a. Go to the same article from the ABC-Clio database World at War.

8.b. From the Sources tab, click on “Create a New Citation”.

8.c. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Once again choose “Database”.

8.d. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”. Once again choose “Original Content in Database” (because the citation shows it was written for this database).

 
 

 

8.e. Start filling in as much information as you can, copying from the article, and adjusting the text as needed. Notice the pop-up hints.

8.f. Click “Submit”.

8.g. Compare your finished citation to the citation below. You can check the accuracy of your citation by looking at the Chicago style guide HERE.

Helpful pointers:

  • There seems to be no published date.

  • You can assume that the ID number is the same as a database accession number.

 

Taylor, Maxine. "How did U.S. Isolationism Affect its Participation in World War

    I?" World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society.

    http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Topics/Display/1289825.

 

8.h. Now compare your two citations.

Copy/paste

Taylor, Maxine. "U.S. Isolationism: Key Question." In World at War:

    Understanding Conflict and Society, ABC-CLIO, 2005. Accessed September 15, 2016. https://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Topics/Display/1289825?cid=9.

 

Manual

Taylor, Maxine. "How did U.S. Isolationism Affect its Participation in World War

    I?" World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society.

    http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Topics/Display/1289825.

 

Possible reasons for differences:

  • EBSCO’s copy-paste citation is not using the visible title, but rather something the database has stored.

  • There is no published date posted.

  • EBSCO’s copy-paste citation may be using an older version of Chicago. Now the access date is not automatically used; it would have to be added manually if your professor wanted it.

  • So, both the citation software and the software that creates a copy-paste citation in a database may not always be right.

 
 

9. Student practice: Create an MANUAL citation for a database article.

Create a MANUAL citation for a database article.

9.a. Go to this article titled: “The Shadows Lengthen”, from the EBSCO publishing company’s database History Resource Center.

9.b. Back in NoodleTools, from the Sources tab, click on “Create a New Citation”.

9.c. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Once again choose “Database”.

9.d. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”. Choose “Magazine” because this is an article in a magazine called “History Today”.

9.e. Start filling in as much information as you can, copying from the article:

  • DOI (Direct Object Identifier): there is none listed

  • URL: find the "permalink" on the right, because it does not change.

  • Name of database: find it

  • Database accession number: find it

  • Most recent date of access: (today's date)

  • Author: find it

  • Article title: find it

  • Pages: find it

  • Name of journal: find it

  • Volume: find it

  • Issue: find it

  • Publication date: find it

  • Series: there is none listed

 

9.f. Click “Submit”.

9.g. Compare your finished citation to the citation below. You can check the accuracy of your citation by looking at the Chicago style guide HERE.

 

Bogdanor, Vernon. "The Shadows Lengthen." History Today, August 2014, 19-25. History Reference Center (97294483).

 

9.10. Now compare your finished citation to the copy-paste citation provided by EBSCO. Look at the differences (possibly due to different chicago versions, and errors in NoodleTools).

 

Manual:

Bogdanor, Vernon. "The Shadows Lengthen." History Today, August 2014, 19-25. History Reference Center (97294483).

Copy/Paste

Bogdanor, Vernon. "The Shadows Lengthen." History Today 64, no. 8 (August 2014): 19-25. History Reference Center, EBSCOhost (accessed September 15, 2016).

Possible reasons for differences:

  • EBSCO’s copy-paste citation is more apt for an academic journal, not a magazine.

  • The URL is not needed when it is very long, AND you have the DOI and/or accession number.

  • The access date would have to be added manually if your professor wanted it.

 

10. Create a MANUAL citation from a web source.

10.a. Go to this article entitled “Slang and World War One”, from the website: The British Library “World War One

10.b. Back in NoodleTools, from the Sources tab, click on “Create a New Citation”.

10.c. Answer the question “Where is it?”. Once again choose “Website”.

10.d. Answer the question “WHAT is it?”. Choose “Web page” because this online article is really a page in the larger museum web site.

10.e. Start filling in as much information as you can, copying from the article:

  • URL: find it

  • Date of publication: find it; if none, leave it blank.

  • Most recent date of access: use it

  • Contributors: find the author

  • Web Page or document/article title: Find the article title

  • Name of the website: find it (not the same as the publisher)

  • Publisher of the site: Find it (bottom of page)

  • Editors of the site as a whole: hard to find. We'll talk about this.

10.f. Click “Submit”.

10.g. Compare your finished citation to the citation below. You can check the accuracy of your citation by looking at the Chicago style guide HERE.

 

Walker, Julian. "Slang and World War One." World War One, British Library Board, www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/slang-and-world-war-one. Accessed 18 Sept. 2016.

 
 

 
Part B: Creating and Organizing Notes in NoodleTools
 
 

1. Create a new note in NoodleTools.

1.a. If you are in “Sources”, click on the “Notecards” tab.

If you are on the “Projects” page, click on your practice project to get to the “Dashboard” tab. Once there, click on the “Notecards” tab.

 

1.b. Click “+New” to create a new note.

 
 

1.c. Write a “Title” that represents the basic idea of your note.

1.d. Choose one of your source citations from the dropdown menu.

1.e. Cut and paste a “Direct quotation”, a “paraphrase or summary”, or an original “My idea”.

1.f. Take the time to create a well-written note NOW, that could get slotted right in your paper.

 
 

1.g. Be sure to add a “Tag” which should represent the specific topic or theme of the note. Be specific, because you will use tags to group similar notes together. Tags with more than one word should be in quotes.

1.h. Click “Save and Close”.

1.i. Create a second note in the same way for the same article, or another article. You need two notes for the next step. You may find that one note obscures the other on the desktop; just drag it off.

 

2. Group notes together by common topics/themes.

2.a. Drag one note on top of the other, and release it to create a “Pile” (terrible name).

2.b. Name your “Pile” . A “Pile” name can be a category/theme/topic that both notes address. We are pretending that the two notes deal with the same specific topic.

2.c. Click OK.

2.d. Create two more new notes, and make a new “Pile”.

 

3. Convert notes to outlines.

3.a. Click the “Add+” button to create a few headings. You can change the name of topics by double-clicking, and rearrange the hierarchy by dragging and dropping.

 
 

 

3.b. Now DRAG one of your piles, or loose notes, right on top of any outline heading on the right until the heading is highlighted, and DROP it there.  It will now appear as a note in that heading of the outline. You can rearrange the notes in the outline by dragging and dropping.

 

4. Export or print notes.

 

4.a. On the Notecard desktop, click “Print” to export your saved notes.

4.b. Notice the export options.  Choose one, and practice downloading exported notes. Note that choosing Google requires signing into your Google account.

 

5. Cite your sources within your paper. How? See notes below.

 
 
 

 

Class Notes

What is a citation?

A citation is all the information you need to tell where an idea or quotation came from, and to be able to find that source again.

 

“What kind of information is included in a citation?”

Citations can include the following information, and more...

  1. author

  2. title

  3. place of publication

  4. publisher (and more about where it can be found)

  5. date of publication

  6. medium (type of publication)

  7. date you found it (electronic resources)

  8. web address (URL) IF your teacher requires it.

 

Note: the medium (type) of publication may be: Print, Web, File, Film, CD-ROM, DVD, etc. and more, depending on the kind of information

 
 

Citing your sources within your paper.

  • How do you cite the article in the body of your paper?

    • Chicago includes two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and author-date style (sometimes called reference list style). We are using the notes-bibliography style.

    • The basics of the note-bibliography style are as follows: Whenever you need to cite a source, a superscript number is placed in the text at the end of the sentence or part of the sentence. A normal-sized number corresponding to that reference is placed at the end of the page or the end of the section (your teacher’s choice). The first time a source is used at the bottom of the page, the entire citation form is used.  The second time it is used at the bottom it is shortened (see rules).  When the same source is used twice or more in a row, you write “ibid” (which means “the same”), and change page number if needed. The bibliography at the end includes all sources with their complete citation forms, in alphabetic order.

  • You will need to follow the instructions and examples from a reliable source, like the writing experts at Purdue University’s CHICAGO style pages.

  • Look at the sample Chicago “Footnotes and Bibliography” paper on our History guide.

 
 
 

Carrafiello: Industrialism, Using Research Databases

Carrafiello

Modern American History: 10th Grade

How to use Library Databases

Information Literacy topic: “Determining best sources”

Information literacy topics:

  • Determining best sources

  • Searching strategies for information

  • Evaluating sources

  • Using technology tools


Objective: To learn to access appropriate online research sources, to practice effective searching strategies, and to summarize information from text.

Lesson:

 

Search our library catalogs from Destiny Quest to find all our printed books, magazines and journals, textbooks, encyclopedias, music CDs, movies (DVD and VHS). Use the resource lists!

School Product Database Sites:

 

  1. ABC Clio: American History

    *comprehensive electronic library of historical reference materials
  2. SIRS,

    *mix of periodicals
  3. History Reference Center

    *full text for more than 1,990 reference books, encyclopedias, non-fiction books, and academic journals
  4.  American History in Video

    *online video allowing students and researchers to analyze events in America's history, and their presentation over time through different media
  5. Encyclopedia BritannicaExplore this online encyclopedia with hundreds of thousands of articles, biographies, videos, images, and Web sites.  ​This is through the AMSB Library - please use this login information:
    ​username: amity    
    ​password:  
    bethany

Discuss features of the online research tools and allow for individual searching.

 

Open Sources:

Google - What results do you get? Why would you want to use those?

Google Scholar - Why might this be better?

 

Evaluation Criteria:

 

  • Who created it? Is this person (or organization) a qualified, reputable, expert? Is she authoritative (reliable)?

  • What is the information like? Is it accurate, giving complete coverage, well-written, well-organized? Does it cite its sources? Are those sources reliable?

  • Where is the information from? Where is the site stored? Remember that just having a page stored in a university does not mean the university backs your information.

  • Why was the information or site created? Was the goal to present information objectively in a balanced way? If it aims to convince, does it address different points of view? Do the presenters have an identifiable political, ideological, or commercial goal that might slant their information?

  • When was it created? Is it current? (sometimes currency/recent is not important)

  • Conclusion: reliable for your purpose?  YES/NO?


Where do I find this information:

 

  • Who -- Look in and follow-up people and organizations in:

    • About / Contact / “byline” (credits) / bottom of page / sidebars /

  • What --  Read and analyze content information in:

    • Titles / Text / Citations and References

  • Where --  Look in and follow-up on site and organization information in:

    • About / Contact / URL / Domain name

  • Why --  Look in and follow-up on author, site, and organization information in:

    • Text

  • When --   Look in:

    • bottom of page / sidebars / subtitle / “byline” (credits)

Evaluating Open Web Sources

Wendy Carrafiello

Modern American History (updated 2015 R.Musco)

Evaluating Open Web Sources

Information literacy topics:

  • Determining best sources

  • Searching strategies for information

  • Evaluating sources

  • Using technology tools

Objective: To learn to find relevant and reliable open web research sources, to evaluate these sources for reliability, and to use appropriate technology tools.

1. Go to the activity guide online at:

Amity website→High SchoolAHS Library Information Center

Find Online Stuff→By Subject→History→Class Projects →Carrafiello→Evaluating Open Web Sources

2. Skim this article:

New York City Mayor Fiorella H. LaGuardia's Speech before the U.S. Senate's Hearings on Prohibition

Look at the organization that published the article:

Temperance & Prohibition Temperance.png

3. Respond to this statement:

“The web resource has been judged to offer credible information that is appropriate for academic research. Find at least 3 reasons to show that this is true.”

4. Share reasons why this website is appropriate for research (why the information here can be trusted).

Discuss the evaluation criteria.

5. Brainstorm and list various search terms from a topic phrase.

“What validity did arguments made in opposition to the prohibition of alcohol have?”

  • Think of key words or recognized phrases specific to the topic

  • Think of synonyms

  • Think of the most important terms

  • Think of terms that might sometimes be too limiting

  • Use “...” for phrases, ANDs, ORs, and parenthesis to structure search

6. Now do your own search for a reliable research site.

  • 6.a. Submit 3 different web sources on this FORM, and complete the evaluation information.

  • 6.b. Be prepared to discuss your findings.

 

Frontline’s “The Choice, 2016”: Objectivity in the Media

The Choice 2016.JPG

Frontline’s “The Choice, 2016”: Objectivity in the Media

(updated 9-2016, R. Musco)

 

The question:

  • To what extent is it possible to create an “investigative” documentary that is objective and free of editorializing?

  • Which aspects of the candidates’ personal stories are presented objectively, and which show some bias?

 

Can you explain what a documentary film is?

Criteria for a documentary:

  • Discusses real events or people.

  • Includes “documentary” evidence (interviews, archival research like film, text, or objects).

  • Limits re-creations to  known facts.

  • May or may not try to convince viewers of one point of view.

  • Should address varied points of view.

 

Is “The Choice, 2016” an investigative report, a documentary, or something else?

  • Frontline (Public Broadcasting System) bills its programs as “investigations”.

  • Frontline programs something between investigative reporting and documentaries.

 

Hillary vs. The Donald: What can we agree on?

  • Consider these “objective” aspects of each candidate’s life.

  • Are they presented objectively?

  • Is more weight given to one or more aspects over others?

 

Hillary is:

A woman

A white person

A lawyer

An ex-senator

An ex Secretary of State

Almost 70

A mother

A grandmother

A person who needs glasses

A person with a Mid-west accent

A Harvard and Yale graduate

A minister’s daughter

An early advocate of civil rights

The wife of a president

The wife of an unfaithful husband

A person who polls as being unpopular

A person who was accused of shady financial dealings

A person who has been accused of misrepresenting some facts

Trump is:

A man

A white person

A real-estate executive

An ex reality-show personality

An active real-estate investor

About 70

A father

A grandfather

A person who is a bit overweight

A person with a standard East-coast accent

A Wharton graduate

A millionaire’s son

A public figure with controversial opinions

A man who has been married 3 times

A husband who was unfaithful to his first wife

A person who polls as being unpopular

A person who was accused of shady financial dealings

A person who has been accused of misrepresenting some facts

 
 

Your Task

Watch "The Choice, 2016", and decide to what degree the creators of this documentary were able to avoid “editorializing”.  

 

How:

For each candidate, identify at least one area that was dealt with objectively, and one area that shows a clear stance or opinion on the part of the filmmakers.

Give examples from what you remember. You can review "The Choice, 2016" online.

 

Hillary Rodham Clinton

Explain one characteristic that was objectively presented:

Explain one characteristic presented with “editorializing”. Give an example.
 

Donald J. Trump

Explain one characteristic that was objectively presented:

Explain one characteristic presented with “editorializing”. Give an example.

Carrafiello Class Websites

Amity High School, Amity Region 5 School District, Woodbridge, CT 06525, 203-397-4844 Librarians: Robert F. Musco and Victoria Hulse Copyright 2017